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China Brefing

China, also named Chunghwa, has the full name of the People’s Republic of China. Located in eastern Asia and the west bank of the Pacific Ocean, China stretches about 5,500 km long from the main channel of Heilongjiang River of north Mohe River in the north to James Shoal of the South China Sea in the south; and is about 5,200 km in width from the Pamir Mountains in the west to the junction of main channels of Heilongjiang River and Wusuli River in the east. Covering an area of about 9,600,000 k㎡, China is the third largest country in the world in terms of territory, only second to Russia and Canada. Its land border is 22,800 km. China neighbors DPRK in the east, Mongolia in the north, Russia in the northeast, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tadzhikistan in the northwest, and borders countries including Afghan, Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan in the west and southwest, and Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam in the south. Continent coastline in the east and southeast extends more than 18,000 km. The coast has flat terrain and fine harbors. In addition, most of the harbors are ice-free ports all the year around. The Bohai Sea (continental sea), the Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea embrace continental margin from the north to the south. The width of the territorial sea is 12 sea miles, with the sea area of 4,730,000 km2. China faces South Korea, Japan, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei and other countries across the sea.

China is a unified multinational country with the main body of Chinese civilization, basis of Chinese culture, and main nationality of Han. Chinese is commonly used in China. Various nationalities in the territory of China are called by a joint name, Chinese nation. Dragon is the symbol of Chinese nation. Being a country with long history, China steps into a modernized society. There are beautiful natural sceneries and cultural landscapes, various delicious foods, enthusiastic and hospitable people in China.

 

Nation

All nationalities in Chinese territory and all overseas Chinese are called by a joint name, Chinese nation. Chinese are in the east and middle part of Asia. Chinese descendants are named as husbandmen. Chiyou descendants are called multitude. They are jointly named as common people. They are the earliest body of Chinese nation. Chinese nation has a long history through thousands of years of evolution, development and integration. China is a unified multinational country from ancient times. Through nationality identification, current Chinese nation includes Han and other 55 ethnic minorities. The whole country has a population of about 1.3 billion, 90% of which are Han nationality. Besides, there are several nationalities not yet identified or confirmed by the People’s Republic of China, including Macanese, Sherpa people, and Chinese Jew. 

The distribution of Chinese nationalities have the following features: live together on the whole, inhabit a small region, and interlaced living. Ethnic minorities inhabit Han regions and Han people inhabit minorities’ regions. This distribution pattern is generated from mutual interaction and movement of various nationalities during the long-term historical development process. The population of ethnic minorities is small in China, but they distribute in a vast area. Ethnic minorities live in various provinces, municipalities, and municipalities directly under the central government in China. Most county-level regions have more than 2 nationalities. Chinese ethnic minorities mainly live in provinces and municipalities including Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Ningxia, Guangxi, Tibet, Yunnan, Guizhou, Qinghai, Sichuan, Gansu, Liaoning, Jilin, Hunan, Hubei, Hainan and Taiwan. Yunnan Province has the most nationalities in China, including 25 nationalities.

Since ancient times, the ancestors of Chinese nations have worked, lived, and reproduced in Chinese territory, and contributed their intelligence for the construction of the unified multinational country and Chinese civilization.

 

Language

Chinese is the language used by most people in China and also the language with most users in the world. 

Chinese character is the character recording Chinese language. Oracle is the earliest character in China, with a history of more than 3000 years. The current Chinese character is evolved gradually from the ancient character. Chinese character is the character used commonly by Han people. Some ethnic minorities also use Chinese character totally. Meanwhile, Chinese character is also the universal character of various ethnic minorities in China. Since 1950s, through the classification and simplification of Chinese character, China has formulated and issued standards including The First Batch of Variant Chinese Character Sorting Table, The Scheme for Simplifying Chinese Characters, Summary Table of Simplified Chinese Characters, Commonly Used Characters Table for Modern Chinese, and A List of Common Modern Chinese Characters. The Law of the People's Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language, issued on October 31, 2000, determined standardized Chinese characters as commonly used characters of the country. Standardized Chinese characters are classified and simplified characters and inherited characters not classified and simplified.

Before the founding of the People’s Republic of China, 21 ethnic minorities have their characters. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the government formulated character schemes for nationalities including Zhuang, Buyi, Yi, Miao, Hani, Lisu, Naxi, Dong, Wa, and Li.

Seen from the system of characters and form of alphabet, Chinese characters has a language system combining meaningful syllabic language, syllabic language and alphabetic language, with alphabet forms including ancient Indian alphabet, Uighur alphabet, Arabic alphabet, square alphabet, Latin alphabet, and Slavs alphabet. 

On February 11, 1958, the fifth session of the first National People’s Congress issued Chinese Phonetic System through the resolution. The Law of the People's Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language stipulates that Chinese Phonetic System is the spelling and phonetic notation tool for the national commonly used language. Chinese Phonetic System is also the international standard for spelling Chinese place name, personal name, and Chinese literature.